Contoh Skripsi Bab2 Review of Literature Bahasa Inggris UNIMA

 berikut merupakan chapter II Riview of Literature dan merupakan sambungan dari Chapter I sebelumnya,.
Chapter II
Language is a tool of communication to interact, and to convey our feelings, thoughts,and ideas. According to keraf (1980:3), it has the folowing functions:
-          Alat untuk menyatakan ekspresi diri
-          Alat komunikasi
-          Alat untuk mengadakan integrasi dan adaptasi social
-          Alat untuk mengadakan control social.
According to Hornby (1998:662) Language is” the systems of sounds and words use by humans to express their thoughts and feelings”. It means that language is a medium to explain our thoughts and feelings. According to Kridalaksana (1993:21)” Bahasa adalah system lambang bunyi yang arbitrer yang digunakan oleh anggota suatu kelompok masyarakat untuk bekerja sama, berinteraksi dan mengidentifikasi diri”( Language is the arbitrary systems of symbols sound that used by a group to work together,to interact, and to identifying ourselves). It is clear that language is a means of communication used by human to communicate with other people.
            Based on the language files seventh edition, phonology is the study of the sound system of language; the particular sounds used in each language from an integrated  system for encoding information and how such systems differ from one language to another, the other hand phonology investigates the organization of speech sound in a particular language. In this research the writer investigated the sound change in trash metal music so it is important to talk about sound change.
Sound change is an alteration in the phonetic shape of a sound as a result of a phonological process. If a phonological process is introduced into a language where it did not formerly occur, it may result in a sound change.
Based on language files seventh edition,Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change). Sound change can consist of the replacement of one speech sound (or, more generally, one phonetic feature) by another, the complete loss of the affected sound, or even the introduction of a new sound in a place where there previously was none. Sound changes can be environmentally conditioned, meaning that the change in question only occurs in a defined sound environment, whereas in other environments the same speech sound is not affected by the change. The term "sound change" refers to diachronic changes, or changes in a language's underlying sound system over time; "alternation", on the other hand, refers to surface changes that happen synchronically and do not change the language's underlying system (for example, the -s in the English plural can be pronounced differently depending on what sound it follows; this is a form of alternation, rather than sound change).
Sound change is usually assumed to be regular, which means that it is expected to apply mechanically whenever its structural conditions are met, irrespective of any non-phonological factors (such as the meaning of the words affected). On the other hand, sound changes can sometimes be sporadic, affecting only one particular word or a few words, without any seeming regularity.
For regular sound changes, the somewhat hyperbolic term sound law is sometimes still used. This term was introduced by the Neogrammarian school in the 19th century and is commonly applied to some historically important sound changes, such as Grimm's law. While real-world sound changes often admit exceptions (for a variety of known reasons, and sometimes without one), the expectation of their regularity or "exceptionlessness" is of great heuristic value, since it allows historical linguists to define the notion of regular correspondence
Each sound change is limited in space and time. This means it functions within a specified area (within certain dialects) and during a specified period of time. For these (and other) reasons, some scholars avoid using the term "sound law" — reasoning that a law should not have spatial and temporal limitations — replacing the term with phonetic rule.
Sound change which affects the phonological system, in the number or distribution of its phonemes, is covered more fully at phonological change.
There are type of sound change based on the language files seventh edition,they are:
2.1.1                    Assimilation. Assimilation refers to a situation in which one of sound becomes more like another sound. For example income (in’kam) become (i: ηkam)
2.1.2                    Dissimilation. Dissimilation refers to a situation in which to similar sounds becomes less like one another. In some varieties of English the word fifth has undergone a sound change whereby the final fricative has dissimilated to a stop (fifth).
2.1.3                    Deletion. At the end of the middle English period unstressed word- final was deleted. Middle English nose (nᴐzә): Modern English nose (noz).
2.1.4                    Insertion. In a conciderable number of Modern English varieties the basic form of the word athlete is pronounced (ᴂөәlit). In this word a sound change has taken place inserting (ә) between consonants of a cluster that was perceived to be difficult to pronounce. The older, basic form of the word is (ᴂөlit)
2.1.5                    Methatesis. Methatesis refers to a change in order of sound. Some English dialects have reserved the order of the velar stop at the alveolar fricative in the word ask so that the word is pronounced (ᴁks) instead of standart English (ᴁsk).

Based on the wikipedia Thrash metal is a Extreme subgenre of heavy metal that is characterized by its fast tempo and aggression. Thrash metal songs typically use fast, percussive and low-register guitar riffs, overlaid with shredding-style lead work. Thrash metal lyrics often deal with social issues using direct and denunciatory language, an approach which partially overlaps with the hardcore genre. The "Big Four" bands of thrash metal are Metallica, Slayer, Megadeth and Anthrax , who simultaneously created and popularized the genre in the early 1980s.
The origins of thrash metal are generally traced to the late 1970s and early 1980s, when a number of bands began incorporating the sound of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal, creating a new genre and developing into a separate movement from punk rock and hardcore. This genre is more aggressive compared to its relative, speed metal, and can be seen in part to be a reaction to the lighter, more widely acceptable sounds and themes of glam metal.
2.3 Song
Based on wikipedia A song is a relatively short musical composition for the human voice (possibly accompanied by other musical instruments), which features words (lyrics). It is typically for a solo singer, though may also be a duet, trio, or for more voices (works with more than one voice to a part, however, are considered choral). The words of songs are typically of a poetic, rhyming nature, although they may be religious verses or free prose. Songs can be broadly divided into many different forms, depending on the criteria used. One division is between "art songs", "popular songs", and "folk songs". Other common methods of classification are by purpose (sacred vs secular), by style (dance, ballad, Lieder, etc.) or by time of origin (Renaissance, Contemporary, etc). The performer of a song is called a "singer" or "vocalist", the act is called singing.
2.3.1 Art songs
Art songs are songs created for performance in their own right, usually with piano accompaniment, although they can also have other types of accompaniment such as an orchestra or string quartet, and are always notated. Generally they have an identified author(s) and require voice training for acceptable performances. The German word for song, "Lied" (plural: "Lieder"), is used in French and English-speaking communities to refer to the serious art song, whereas in German-speaking communities the word "Kunstlied" (plural: "Kunstlieder") is used to distinguish art song from folk song ("Volkslied"). The lyrics are often written by a lyricist and the music seperately by a composer. Art songs may be more formally complicated than popular or folk songs, though many early Lieder by the likes of Franz Schubert are in simple strophic form. They are often important to national identity.
Art songs feature in many European cultures, including but not limited to: Russian (romansy), Dutch (lied), Italian (canzoni), French (mélodies), Scandinavian (sånger), Spanish (canciones). Cultures outside of Europe may have what they consider to be a classical music tradition, such as India, and thus feature art songs.
2.3.2 Popular songs
Popular songs are songs which may be considered in between art songs and folk songs. They are usually accompanied in performance and recording by a band. They are not anonymous in origin and have a known authors. They are often but not always notated by their author(s) and tend to be composed in collaboration slightly more often than art songs, for instance by an entire band, though the lyrics are usually written by one person, usually the lead singer. Popular songs are often a part of individual and cultural, but seldom national, identity. Performers usually often have not undergone formal voice training but highly stylized vocal techniques are used.
2.3.3 Folk song
Folk songs are songs of often anonymous origin (or are public domain) that are transmitted orally. They are frequently a major aspect of national or cultural identity. Art songs often approach the status of folk songs when people forget who the author was. Folk songs are also frequently transmitted non-orally (that is, as sheet music), especially in the modern era. Folk songs exists in virtually if not every culture. For more on folk songs, see Folk music.
For a list of influential songs, see:
  • The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll
  • The Grammy Hall of Fame Award (also includes many albums)
  • The annual Eurovision Song Contest includes a list of winners
2.4 Song forms
  • Aria and recitative (Opera)
  • Chanson
  • Ballad
  • Hymn
  • Mass
  • Oratorio
  • Spiritual
  • Carol
  • Lied (plural: Lieder)
  • Pibroch
  • Gregorian chant and plainsong
  • Popular music: Rock and Roll and Pop songs, Rap etc.
  • Cantata
  • Madrigal
  • Lullaby
  • World music and Traditional music
  • Working song
2.5 Lyric
Based on Wikipedia Lyrics (in singular form lyric) are a set of words that make up a song. The writer of lyrics is a lyricist or lyrist. The meaning of lyrics can either be explicit or implicit. Some lyrics are abstract, almost unintelligible, and, in such cases, their explication emphasizes form, articulation, meter, and symmetry of expression. The lyricist of traditional musical forms such as Opera is known as a librettist.
Lyric derives from the Greek word λυρικός lyrikos, meaning "singing to the lyre". A lyric poem is one that expresses a subjective, personal point of view.
The word lyric came to be used for the "words of a song"; this meaning was recorded in 1876. The common plural (perhaps because of the association between the plurals lyrics and words), predominates contemporary usage. Use of the singular form lyric to refer to a song's complete set of words is grammatically acceptable. However it's not considered acceptable to refer to a singular word in a song as a lyric.

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